Connecting with TLS (SSL)

Hydra is secured with end-to-end encryption with publicly-trusted certificates.

You must use TLS (SSL) to connect to Hydra. Hydra does not support unencrypted connections.

Hydra has publicly-trusted certificates, issued by Let's Encrypt, allowing you to connect safety and securely to your data warehouse from anywhere on the Internet.

  • Whenever possible, we recommend validating the certificate. To do so, use sslmode=verify-full when connecting and configure your Postgres connection to read your public certificate bundle. More

  • If you are unable to configure your Postgres connection, we recommend using sslmode=require.

For clients based on libpq, information on sslmode in available in the Postgres documentation.

GUI clients

For GUI clients, configuration for SSL will vary. Please look for SSL settings when configuring a connection. If you encounter issues, please check your client's documentation for more information. If you are still unable to connect, reach out to Hydra support and we'll do our best to assist you.

Locating your root certificate bundle

To validate the certificate, you will need to know the location of your root certificate bundle. On many systems, this file is located at /etc/ssl/cert.pem.

If the file is not located in /etc/ssl, you can use curl -v to a secure URL and look for the CAfile line:

$ curl -v 2>&1 | grep -i CAfile
*  CAfile: /etc/ssl/cert.pem

Configuring psql

You have several options on how to connect with Hydra while validating the certificate.

You only need to use one of the following options to validate the certificate. Validating the certificate is recommended but optional. psql will automatically use SSL to connect to Hydra.

Add sslrootcert to the connection string

The simplest option is to add the file to the end of the connection string using the parameter sslrootcert, as follows:

psql "postgres://.../d123456?sslmode=verify-full&sslrootcert=/etc/ssl/cert.pem"

Add Hydra to the service file

You can manage and save your Hydra connection by creating an entry in your service file, located at ~/.pg_service.conf.


Once you have added this entry, connect to your data warehouse using the name you specified at the top of block:

psql service=hydra

Any additional parameters will override your service entry. For example, you can use psql service=hydra dbname=postgres to connect to the postgres database.

Always validate certificates

If you choose this path, psql will try to validate certificates when connecting to any Postgres database. This will cause connections to some other Postgres databases to return an error, even if you set sslmode.

You can instruct psql to always read your public certificate bundle my symlinking ~/.postgresql/root.crt to your public root cert bundle:

mkdir -p ~/.postgresql
ln -s /etc/ssl/cert.pem ~/.postgres/root.crt

From Your Application

You should refer to your application's Postgres library, but many libraries use libpq behind the scenes. You can configure libpq to read your cert bundle using the PGSSLROOTCERT environment variable. For example, add this environment variable to your application's environment:


Please double check the location of your CA cert bundle in your production environment.

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